Pinion Gear Zero Cone Setting for Salisbury 3.54 Ratio XK-120


(TBRADY312@aol.com) #1

This is for you real gearheads:
I am in the process of installing new 3.54 Dana ring and pinion gears in a Salisbury rear axle for an XK-120 and have referenced the XK-120 Jag Shop Manual to find the proper zero cone setting. It only lists the 3.77 and 3.31 ratios. Does anyone have the proper dimension for a 3.54 ratio?

A friend has suggested that the zero cone setting for the 3.54 ratio listed in the E Type Shop Manual would be the same, at 2.625". However, the XK-120 manual lists the setting for the 3.31 ratio at 2.625" so I am dubious. I’m looking for a confirmed answer to this question, if one exists.

I have searched the archives and the internet for an answer but have come up short. I also measured and calculated the existing setting at 2.699" with a plus .005" mark on the face of the old pinion gear. This would suggest a zero cone setting of 2.694"

Tom Brady


(Roger McWilliams) #2

Dana Spicer 3.54 gear ratio is pretty common. I’ve heard that Salisbury produced their axles under license from Dana. That suggests finding settings methods for Dana 3.54 would inform you of the details needed. For example, Willys used Dana 3.54 in their 1950s jeep utility wagons and pickup trucks. Searching among American websites discussing Dana 3.54 rebuilds and also related American car shop manuals may help you.

The Mark V shop manual shows a 2.750" zero cone setting but that is for Salisbury 2HA (41) at 4.55:1 (50x11) for the 2 1/2 and 4.27:1 (47x11) for the 3 1/2.


(Mike Spoelker) #3


(Mike Spoelker) #4


(Mike Spoelker) #5

I believe you will find that Salisbury predates Dana, Dana-Spicer. Salisbury was in its origin an American company.

Although the internal components do not readily swap between them, the Salisbury design is found in rear axles from Nissan, Isuzu, GM and Ford. It is entirely feasible to install the ring and pinion out of a Nissan or Isuzu truck into the Dana 44, and presumably, into the Salisbury 4HA.

I think you are confusing the gear ratio (3.54)) with the model designation for the axle unit. The Salisbury 4HA, as found in a lot of Jaguars over the years, is virtually identical to the Dana model 44.


(Mike Spoelker) #6

The zero cone setting is the same for all ratios, within the same model axle.


(Roger McWilliams) #7

Mike_S answer of same zero cone setting for all ratios within same model axle is consistent with the Mark V listing.

Also correct that Salisbury slightly predates Dana Corp. Dana the person took over Spicer and some years later bought Salisbury. My wording above appears wrong. Since Salisbury in the US was owned by Dana, it seems better to say GKN Salisbury produced Salisbury differentials under license. Or when did the English company GKN become known as GKN Salisbury, sometime in the late 1940s or 1950s? My rear axle/differential history knowledge is poor.


(Rob Reilly) #8

The Salisbury axle originated with Charles Salisbury of Jamestown New York
in 1901. Clarence W Spicer, inventor of the Hardy-Spicer u-joint, partnered
with George Dana and acquired Salisbury in 1919.
When last I checked we are still looking for a Dana equivalent of the 2HA for those of us that have them.


(Mike Spoelker) #9

I believe that this information used to be on the Dana website:

"The Salisbury Wheel Company was founded in Jamestown, New York, in 1901 when C.W. Salisbury, a key-maker and mender of umbrellas, patented an automobile wheel, then pooled his life savings with two colleagues, Scott Penfield and E.D. Sherman, and started manufacture. Salisbury’s first customer was the E.R. Thomas company, maker of the Thomas Flyer. In 1905, the company started manufacturing front axles. Two years later rear axles were added to its product line.

Acquired by Spicer in 1919, Salisbury was moved to Toledo in 1929, closer to the center of the automotive industry. Salisbury axles became standard equipment in thousands of automotive vehicles. At the outbreak of World War II the light, Salisbury’s rugged axles proved ideal for the Jeep. The Jeep proved so popular that in 1945 Salisbury had to build a new plant in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In 1970, the Salisbury Axle group was renamed the Spicer Axle Division."


(Mike Spoelker) #10

I think we need to be looking at late 1940’s to early 1950’s Studebaker passenger cars.


(TBRADY312@aol.com) #11

As I further look at the in the Salisbury section of XK-120 Service Manual I now see that the two ratios shown with two different zero cone settings are in fact for a 2HA 3.77:1 and a 4HA 3.31:1.
2.625" is listed for the 4HA, which is consistent with what Mike found for the 2.4 and 3.4 Liter MK 2 Models with 4HA, and also consistent with the 4HA 3.54:1 E Type dimension. Problem solved, thanks guys. I will let you know how it goes with the installation of the Dana 44 gears.

Tom Brady


(Rob Reilly) #12

That may be the right track.
Here is one in a '41 Stude.




Looks a lot like a 2HA to me.
I looked in a 1950 Motor’s Manual and the pictures of the '35-'50 Stude axle look like the 2HA but it does not give any info about the maker or getting parts.

Here is the 2HA in my Mark V.
rear%20axle%20005


(Mike Spoelker) #13

This one has been on eBay for quite a while. 1950 Studebaker. It’s in central Michigan. I’m asking him if he will consider cutting the axle tubes and shipping just the center section.


(Roger McWilliams) #14

The Salisbury differential listings in the Mark V parts book show “British Thread” and “American Thread” as options on screws, so thread specification and hole diameters may deserve inspection when replacing parts.


(Mike Spoelker) #15

Are the only British threaded fasteners the bolts that hold the rear cover on? Only thing left would be the main cap and ring gear bolts. That is actually a bonus. SAE threaded fasteners would be much preferred, as they can be easily replaced. About all I would hope to salvage from one of these Studebaker axles would be the gear set, so the ring gear bolts are the only threaded fastener of consequence.


(Ed Nantes) #16

What ratio would the Studebaker diff be? And are they definirely 2HA not 3HA?


(Roger McWilliams) #17

Mark V Spare Spare Parts Catalogue, page 40 has for 2HA-001/11 Rear Axle Assembly (Salisbury):
2HA-075 Screw, Set, securing Crown-Wheel to Differential Case (British Thread), Plate No. X.13, No. per Unit, 10

and

2HA-075/1 Screw, Set, securing Crown-Wheel to Differential Case (American Thread), Plate No. X.13, No. per Unit, 10.

The companion flange assembly to pinion, Plate X.24 also is listed as supplied with either British Thread (part 12-74-GB.121) or American Thread nuts (part 12-74-121).

Anoraks will note the pin in the castle nuts is called out in the Spare Parts Catalogue as
7-72-39 Pin, Cotter, securing Nut as opposed to Split Pins used in the bottom of the engine. Cotter pins are listed in the Mark V 1949 parts book.


(Mike Spoelker) #18

At this point, I don’t know the answer to either of those questions, but I have spent $200 to buy one to find out.


(Rob Reilly) #19

So you got the one in Michigan? I see it is off ebay. My brother lives near him and I was going to have him get it for me. But I don’t really need it and I suppose you do. Let us know what you find.
Some conflicting information is on the web, as to whether Studes used the Dana 27 or Dana 41 axle.


(tony) #20

I notice the Studebaker guys have a very good technical forum, they would probably be helpful.

Some Studebakers had BW8 auto gearbox, same as many Jaguars